Charles Ernest Grassley (born September 17, 1933) is an American politician serving as the president pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate, and the senior United States senator from Iowa, having held the seat since 1981. He is in his seventh Senate term, having first been elected in 1980.

A member of the Republican Party, Grassley served eight terms in the Iowa House of Representatives (1959–1975) and three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1975–1981). He has served three stints as Senate Finance Committee chairman during periods of Republican Senate majority.[1][2] When Orrin Hatch‘s Senate term ended on January 3, 2019 following his retirement, Grassley became the most senior Republican in the Senate, and he served as the president pro tempore of the United States Senate from 2019 to 2021.[3][4]

Grassley is one of the only two remaining U.S. Senators to have served during the Presidency of Jimmy Carter, the other being Patrick Leahy of Vermont.

During his four decades in the Senate, Grassley has chaired the Senate Finance Committee, the Senate Narcotics Committee, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the Senate Aging Committee.

Early life and career

Grassley was born in New Hartford, Iowa, the son of Ruth (née Corwin) and Louis Arthur Grassley,[5] and raised on a farm. He graduated from the town high school. At Iowa State Teachers College (now the University of Northern Iowa), he earned a B.A. in 1955 and an M.A. in political science in 1956. During his time as a student, Grassley joined the social-professional Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity.[6] Also during the 1950s, Grassley farmed and worked in factories in Iowa, first as a sheet metal shearer and then as an assembly line worker. He pursued a Ph.D. in political science at the University of Iowa, but ultimately did not complete the degree. From 1967 to 1968, Grassley taught at Charles City College.[7]

Grassley represented parts of Butler County in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1959 to 1975.[7] He then served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1981.[8]

U.S. Senate

Tenure

1980–1989

Grassley with President Ronald Reagan in 1981

In November 1981, Grassley was one of 32 senators to sign a letter to President Reagan supporting Director of the Office of Management and Budget David Stockman.[9] In August 1982, while the Reagan administration tried persuading senators to approve legislation authorizing the creation of a radio station for broadcasting to Cuba, Grassley joined fellow Iowa senator Roger Jepsen and Edward Zorinsky in seeking an amendment to the bill barring the Reagan administration from operating Radio Marti on that frequency or other commercial AM frequencies.[10]

In October 1983, Grassley voted against establishing a legal holiday to commemorate Martin Luther King Jr.‘s birthday.[11] In 2015, an aide to Grassley said that he voted against the holiday due to an “economic decision both in the cost to the broader economy in lost productivity, and the cost to the taxpayers with the federal government closed.”[12] In 2004, Grassley co-sponsored legislation giving King a posthumous award, which became law on October 25 that year.[13][14]

On November 1, 1984, Grassley signed a one-page citation of contempt of Congress against Attorney General William French Smith due to Smith’s not turning over files on an investigation into Navy shipbuilding. Assistant Attorney General Stephen S. Trott called the citation “out of place” since Grassley was not acting at a session of the Judiciary panel he led.[15]

In May 1987, the Senate Appropriations Committee defeated an attempt by Grassley to hasten payments of corn and other feed grain subsidies ahead of the scheduled payment taking place after October 1. The Grassley measure was also designed to unravel an accounting device lawmakers used previously to make it appear that they were reducing spending for the incoming fiscal year.[16] In October, during a press briefing, Grassley accused Reagan of being “asleep at the switch” and botching the handling of Robert Bork’s Supreme Court nomination, adding that Bork’s nomination had convinced him that the Reagan administration “has been terribly lucky for the last seven years” in other matters, including the economy and foreign policy.[17] Later that month, Grassley likened the groups lobbying against Bork’s nomination to the McCarthyism of the 1950s: “The big lie is standard operating procedure for some of these groups. All you have to do is repeat the same outrageous charges, and repeat them so often that people believe they are true.”[18] In November, as party leaders of the Senate Judiciary Committee met on the Supreme Court nomination of Douglas H. Ginsburg, Grassley released the text of a letter he intended to send to the American Bar Association suggesting the association was dragging its feet in reviewing Ginsburg’s record.[19] After Ginsburg admitted having smoked marijuana, Grassley said, “You like to think people who are appointed to the Supreme Court respect the law.”[20] Grassley joined Jesse Helms in resisting the nomination of Anthony Kennedy, Reagan’s next choice for the Supreme Court, saying that he would have preferred another nominee such as appeals court justices Pasco Bowman II or John Clifford Wallace.[a] Grassley stated his distaste for “the people who are committed to changing the judiciary” and taking “the path of least resistance.”[23]

In January 1989, as the Senate voted to schedule a vote within the following month on the pay increase, Grassley questioned how senators would decline federal program increases “come March and April if the first thing out of the box is a pay raise?”[24] In February, he was one of six senators to testify against the 50% pay increase scheduled to take effect the following week.[25] In October, Grassley was one of nine senators to vote against legislation intended to outlaw flag burning and other forms of flag defacement and joined Bob Dole and Orrin Hatch, the other two Republicans to vote against the bill, in voicing a preference for a constitutional amendment.[26]

1990–1999

Senators Grassley and Max Baucus (D-MT), and Representative E. Clay Shaw (R-FL) (left to right) address the media after a meeting at the White House with President Bill Clinton

In January 1991, Grassley was one of only two Republican senators to vote against joining the international coalition to force Iraq out of Kuwait, the other being Mark Hatfield of Oregon.[27] In August 1991, he became one of six Republicans on the Select Senate Committee on POW-MIA Affairs that would investigate the number of Americans still missing in the aftermath of the Vietnam War following renewed interest.[28] In July 1998, President Bill Clinton listed Grassley among the members of Congress who had made it possible “for me to sign into law today the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act.”[29] On February 12, 1999, Grassley was one of 50 Senators to vote to convict and remove Bill Clinton from office.[30]

2000–2009

In May 2001, Grassley met with Democratic senator Max Baucus over the allocation of finances in tax cuts and both reported they were making progress in reaching a bipartisan deal, Grassley adding that the bill would contain all four of the main elements proposed by the Bush administration and the Senate Finance Committee would modify the components of the Bush proposal.[31]

In August 2002, Grassley sent a letter to president and chief executive of the United Way of America Brian Gallagher requesting a detailed explanation on the overseeing of both finances and management of the organization’s affiliates. Grassley also wrote to chief executive of the United Way of the National Capital Area Norman O. Taylor in regards to allegations of affiliates misappropriating money as well as withholding information the board needed to allow its conducting of oversight.[32]

As a senior member of the Senate Finance Committee, Grassley has spearheaded many probes into alleged misuse and lack of accountability of federal money. In July 2007, a Grassley-commissioned report was released claiming that more than US$1 billion in farm subsidies were sent to deceased individuals.[33] Grassley was called a “Taxpayer Super Hero” in 2014 by the Council for Citizens Against Government Waste. He received a 100 percent rating from the group that year and has a lifetime rating of 78 percent.[34] Grassley was ranked the 5th most bipartisan Senator of the 114th United States Congress and the 7th most bipartisan Senator in the first session of the 115th Congress by the Bipartisan Index, a metric created by the Lugar Center for the Lugar Center and Georgetown’s McCourt School of Public Policy to rank members of the United States Congress by their degree of bipartisanship.[35][36]

In February 2004, Grassley released an internal report composed by the FBI in 2000 that examined 107 instances of either serious or criminal misconduct by its agents over a 16-year period. In a letter to the FBI, Grassley called the report “a laundry list of horrors with examples of agents who committed rape, sexual crimes against children, other sexual deviance and misconduct, attempted murder of a spouse, and narcotics violations, among many others” and added that the report’s findings raised questions about whether the FBI handled agents “soon enough and rigorously enough”.[37]

On June 28, 2006, Grassley proposed legislation[38][39] intended to curb sex trafficking and sexual slavery in the United States by means of strict enforcement of tax laws, for example by requiring a W-2 form be filed for each prostitute managed by a pimp or other employer.

Since 1976, Grassley has repeatedly introduced measures that increase the level of taxation on American citizens living abroad, including retroactive tax hikes. Grassley was eventually able to attach an amendment to a piece of legislation that went into effect in 2006, which increased taxes on Americans abroad by targeting housing and living incentives paid by foreign employers and held them accountable for federal taxes, even though they did not currently reside in the United States. Critics of the amendment felt that the move hurt Americans competing for jobs abroad by putting an unnecessary tax burden on foreign employers. Others felt that the move was only to offset the revenue deficit caused by domestic tax cuts of the Bush Administration.[40][41][42]

In March 2009, amid a scandal that involved AIG executives receiving large salary bonuses from the taxpayer-funded bailout of AIG, Grassley suggested that those AIG employees receiving large bonuses should follow the so-called ‘Japanese example’, resign immediately or commit suicide. After some criticism, he dismissed the comments as rhetoric.[43][44][45]

In May 2009, Grassley cosponsored a resolution to amend the US Constitution to prohibit flag burning.[46]

Chuck Grassley in 2009

When President Barack Obama and the Democratic Party proposed a health reform bill featuring mandated health insurance, Grassley opposed the health insurance mandate, saying that it was a deal breaker.[47] In response to an audience question at an August 12, 2009, meeting in Iowa, about the end-of-life counseling provisions in the House health care bill, H.R. 3200, Grassley said people were right to fear that the government would “pull the plug on grandma.”[48][49][50][51] Grassley had previously supported covering end-of-life counseling, having voted for the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which stated: “The covered services are: evaluating the beneficiary’s need for pain and symptom management, including the individual’s need for hospice care; counseling the beneficiary with respect to end-of-life issues and care options, and advising the beneficiary regarding advanced care planning.”[52] In December 2009, he voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly called Obamacare or the Affordable Care Act). It was later reported that Grassley had notified Obama that he would vote against the Affordable Care Act even had the bill been modified to include all of the proposed modifications Grassley had proposed.[53]

2010–2020

In January 2010, Grassley was one of seven Senate Republicans to sign a letter warning the White House about their serious reservations with Director of the Transportation Security Administration nominee Erroll Southers due to conflicting accounts Southers gave the Senate about his previous tapping of databases for information about his ex-wife’s boyfriend in the late 1980s.[54]

In December 2010, Grassley was one of 26 senators who voted against the ratification of New START,[55] a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russian Federation obliging both countries to have no more than 1,550 strategic warheads as well as 700 launchers deployed during the next seven years along with providing a continuation of on-site inspections that halted when START I expired the previous year. It was the first arms treaty with Russia in eight years.[56]

In April 2013, Grassley opposed a gun control amendment authored by Senators Joe Manchin and Pat Toomey, and instead proposed alternative legislation to increase prosecutions of gun violence and increase reporting of mental health data in background checks.[57]

Senator Grassley in 2016

On March 9, 2015, Grassley was one of 47 senators to sign a letter to Iran led by Tom Cotton to rebuke the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.[58] In June 2015, Grassley introduced legislation to help protect taxpayers from alleged abuses by the Internal Revenue Service. The legislation was proposed in response to recent events involving alleged inappropriate conduct by employees at the IRS but was opposed by Democrats.[59]

Since first taking office in 1981, Grassley has held public meetings in all of Iowa’s 99 counties each year, even after losing honorarium payments for them in 1994.[60] This has led to the coinage of the term “full Grassley,” to describe when a United States presidential candidate visits all 99 counties of Iowa before the Iowa caucuses.[61]

In 2018, Grassley suggested that no women were serving on the Senate Judiciary Committee because of the heavy workload.[62] The following week, Grassley added that he would “welcome more women” to serve on the Committee “because women as a whole are smarter than most male senators. And they work real hard, too.”[63]

In July 2018, after President Donald Trump nominated Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court,[64] Grassley lauded Kavanaugh as “one of the most qualified Supreme Court nominees to come before the Senate”,[65] and said that critics of Kavanaugh should lessen their confidence in how he would vote given past surprises in voting by members of the Court.[66]

In 2016, Senate Republicans refused to consider Obama’s nomination of Merrick Garland to the Supreme Court. At the time, Grassley said that the “American people shouldn’t be denied a voice” in the nomination, which was “too important to get bogged down in politics”. In 2020, after a Supreme Court vacancy arose due to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg‘s death, Grassley supported a prompt vote on Trump’s nominee, backing the decision of “the current chairman of the Judiciary Committee and the Senate Majority Leader”.[67]

2021

Grassley was participating in the certification of the 2021 United States Electoral College vote count when Trump supporters stormed the U.S. Capitol. He was removed from the Senate chamber and taken to a secure location when rioters entered the building.[68] In the wake of the attack, Grassley said that Trump “displayed poor leadership in his words and actions, and he must take responsibility.”[69] He said efforts to impeach Trump would risk “further disunity” and that “the country must take steps to tone down political rhetoric and mend divisions.”[70] In response, The Gazette editorial board wrote that Grassley and other Iowa Republicans “must reckon with why they did the wrong thing for so long.”[71] He has said he will run for reelection in the 2022 United States Senate election in Iowa, but a majority of Iowans have said they do not want him to.[72]

Senate record for consecutive votes

As of November 2015, Grassley had cast 12,000 votes,[73] and as of July 2012, he had missed only 35 votes in his Senate career.[74] In January 2016, he set a record for the most time without a missed roll-call vote, having not missed one since July 1993, when he was touring Iowa with President Bill Clinton to survey flood damage.[75] In November 2020, this streak came to an end after over 27 years and 8,927 votes[76] when he quarantined after being exposed to COVID-19.[77] Grassley broke Senator William Proxmire‘s record for most time without a missed vote, but Proxmire holds the record for most consecutive roll-call votes, with 10,252.[75]

Committee assignments

Caucus membership

Political positions

Abortion

Grassley has stated that he considers himself to be pro-life and has expressed concern regarding the potential for abortions to be paid for with federal funds.[78] In December 1981, Grassley voted for a proposed constitutional amendment by Orrin Hatch that would allow both Congress and the states to ban or regulate abortion.[79] In 2019, he co-sponsored reintroducing the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act.[80]

Agriculture

In April 2019, Grassley was one of seven senators to sign a letter led by Debbie Stabenow and Joni Ernst to United States secretary of agriculture Sonny Perdue urging the Agriculture Department to implement conservation measures in the 2018 Farm Bill “through a department-wide National Water Quality Initiative, which would build off the existing initiative housed at the Natural Resource Conservation Service.”[81]

Energy and environment

Grassley has expressed concern about the impact of regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency on farming.[82] He stated that it has a “public relations problem” with “the ethanol industry, corn farmers and [himself]”.[83] He also stated that the EPA has “screwed” farmers with 31 biofuel exemptions.[84] On December 19, 2019, after the EPA withdrew a new Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) rule, Grassley criticized the EPA for “playing games and not helping President Trump with farmers”.[85]

In 1992, Grassley authored EPACT 1992, which created the federal wind energy tax credit.[86]

In 2005, Grassley authored the tax title of EPACT 2005 when he was chairman of the Senate Finance Committee.[87] On June 28, 2005, he voted for the bill.[88] On June 19, 2007, Grassley helped expand tax incentives that produces energy from alternative sources including ethanol, wind, biomass, and biodiesel.[87] On June 21, 2007, Grassley voted for the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which expanded other energy tax incentives through 2013.[89][87]

In September 2015, Grassley received the Dr. Harold D. Prior “Friend of Iowa Wind Energy” award from the Iowa Wind Energy Association for his commitment to supporting wind energy development in Iowa.[90]

In 2017, the Environmental Working Group stated that Grassley received $367,763 in grain commodity subsidies over 21 years.[91]

Grassley supports federal ethanol subsidies.[92]

In 2017, regarding the Paris Agreement, Grassley stated that “unequal terms put the U.S. economy at a significant disadvantage while letting large economies like China’s and India’s off the hook.”[93] Grassley also stated that he didn’t like that the agreement was never voted upon by the Senate.[94]

Estate taxes

Grassley is in favor of repealing the estate tax, which is a tax on inherited assets above $5.5 million for individuals and $11 million for couples.[95][96] He has argued that the estate tax is potentially ruinous for farmers and small business owners.[96] According to the Des Moines Register, Grassley’s argument does not “match the reality found in federal tax data – particularly for Iowa. The estate tax applies to around 5,000 taxpayers across the entire country each year, and very few of them come from Iowa. Of the Iowans subject to the tax, only a fraction are actually farmers, and a vanishingly small number of them face a tax bill requiring them to sell off farmland or other assets… The number of small businesses impacted by the estate tax is similarly small.”[96]

Gun law

Grassley during his time in the U.S. House of Representatives

In 2010, Grassley had an “A” rating from the National Rifle Association (NRA).[97] According to a source from Splinter News, Grassley received $9,900 from the NRA during his 2016 election.[98]

Grassley is a staunch believer that gun laws will not prevent gun deaths or gun-related violence without improved mental health care.[99] Grassley opposed the Manchin-Toomey gun control amendment, and instead proposed alternative legislation to increase prosecutions of gun violence and increase reporting of mental health data in background checks.[57]

In 2016, one month after the Orlando nightclub shooting, Grassley proposed legislation to expand state-to-state access to background check data and to make it illegal for government officials to sell criminals guns as part of sting operations. Both proposals were rejected by the Senate.[100] Additionally, he voted against the Democrats’ Feinstein Amendment, which would make it illegal to sell guns to individuals on the terror watchlist and a Republican-sponsored bill that expanded funding for background checks.[101]

In early 2017, Grassley sponsored legislation that expanded access to mentally disabled individuals, claiming that the previous ban against mentally ill individuals purchasing guns “mistreats disabled Americans.”[102] In response to the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, Grassley stated that it was unlikely that gun laws would change in the wake of the shooting due to Congress being Republican-dominated.[103] A day after the Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida, Grassley said the government had not done enough to prevent individuals with a mental illness from obtaining firearms.[104]

Health care

Grassley opposes the Affordable Care Act and has voted to repeal it.[105] Before its passage, he had supported the individual mandate in health care reform.[106][107][108] Grassley engaged in lengthy negotiations with the Obama administration, as it sought health care reform with support from Republican members of Congress. These negotiations produced nothing that Grassley would support, leading Democrats to characterize Grassley’s efforts as intended to delay or scupper health care reform rather than produce compromise legislation.[109][110][111] In Obama’s memoir, he describes an exchange between him and Grassley in the Oval Office as he sought to reach a compromise with Grassley. Obama asked, “If Max [Baucus] took every one of your latest suggestions, could you support the bill?… Are there any changes—any at all—that would get us your vote?”, to which Grassley responded, “I guess not, Mr. President.”[112]

In July 2017, Grassley stated that Senate Republicans should be ashamed of not having repealed the ACA, and said this could result in a loss of their majority in the 2018 elections.[113]

In August 2018, Grassley was one of ten Republican senators to cosponsor legislation intended to protect ACA provisions for people with preexisting conditions.[114] Health experts said the bill did not prevent insurers from excluding coverage for people with preexisting conditions.[114]

Marijuana

In 2015, Grassley voiced his opposition to a bipartisan senate bill, the Compassionate Access, Research Expansion, and Respect States Act, that would move cannabis from Schedule I to Schedule II. This bill would allow states with medical cannabis laws to legally prescribe it and allow for more research into its medical efficacy.[115] In 2019, along with Democratic U.S. Senators Dianne Feinstein and Brian Schatz, Grassley introduced the Cannabidiol and Marijuana Research Expansion Act, which would expand research into medical marijuana.[116]

Israel Anti-Boycott Act

In April 2017, Grassley co-sponsored the Israel Anti-Boycott Act (s. 720), which would make it a federal crime for Americans to encourage or participate in boycotts against Israel and Israeli settlements in the West Bank if protesting actions by the Israeli government.[117][118] In 2019, Grassley was one of 14 Republican senators to sign a letter from Marco Rubio that involved condemning the BDS movement.[119]

Retirement planning

In 2019, Grassley was one of the lead Senate co-sponsors of the SECURE Act of 2019. This bill, which became law as part of the fiscal year 2020 federal appropriations law signed in late December 2019, was intended to incentivize retirement planning, diversify the options available to savers, and increase access to tax-advantaged savings programs including 529 plans.[120]

Russian interference in 2016 elections

In February 2017, Grassley said that while Russian interference in U.S. elections was “bothersome”, the United States did not have clean hands and had, for instance, interfered with the 1948 Italian election.[121] In May 2017 after Trump fired FBI director James Comey, Grassley advised people suspicious of the Trump administration to “Suck it up and move on.”[122]
On October 31, 2017, while a group of Republicans were facing questions from reporters concerning recent indictments, Grassley ignored the questions and left the room.[123]

In January 2018, and in the first known congressional criminal referral in the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election, Grassley, along with Lindsey Graham, recommended charges against Christopher Steele, one of the people who sought to expose Russian interference.[124] Grassley and Graham said that they had reason to believe that Steele had lied to federal authorities.[124] According to The New York Times, “It was not clear why, if a crime is apparent in the F.B.I. reports that were reviewed by the Judiciary Committee, the Justice Department had not moved to charge Mr. Steele already. The circumstances under which Mr. Steele is alleged to have lied were unclear, as much of the referral was classified.”[124]

In January 2018, when Grassley and Judiciary Committee Republicans were refusing to release the full transcript of an August 2017 ten-hour interview that the Judiciary Committee had conducted with Glenn Simpson, Senator Dianne Feinstein, the top Democrat on the Senate Judiciary Committee, released the full transcript unilaterally.[125] Simpson is the co-founder of the political opposition research firm Fusion GPS, which produced the so-called Steele Dossier on alleged connections between Trump and Russia. Grassley condemned Feinstein, saying that her decision was “confounding” and that it deterred future witnesses in the Russia 2016 investigation.[125] Simpson himself had requested that the full transcript of his interview be released, saying that Republicans had selectively leaked portions of the testimony to conservative media outlets in order to portray Simpson in a negative light and discredit the Steele dossier.[125][126]

Trade

In January 2018, Grassley was one of 36 Republican senators to sign a letter to President Trump requesting he preserve the North American Free Trade Agreement by modernizing it for the economy of the 21st century.[127]

Whistleblowers

The author of the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989, Grassley has campaigned to increase protection and provide support for “whistleblowers“. He has supported a number of FBI whistleblowers, including Coleen Rowley, Sibel Edmonds, and Jane Turner, although not supporting Department of Defense whistleblower Noel Koch.[128]

Grassley received a lifetime achievement award on May 17, 2007 from the National Whistleblower Center.
In April 2014, Grassley announced plans to create a caucus in the Senate dedicated to strengthening whistleblower protections.[129][130]

Grassley defended the whistleblower in the Trump–Ukraine scandal, breaking with his party line, when he declared on October 1, 2019 that the whistleblower “appears to have followed the whistleblower protection laws and ought to be heard out and protected.”[131][132]

After whistleblowers Colonel Alexander Vindman and Ambassador Gordon Sondland testified against Donald Trump and were subsequently fired, Grassley defended Trump’s firing of both whistleblowers on the grounds that their firing was not retaliatory.[133]

National security

On May 28, 2021, Grassley voted against creating an independent commission to investigate the 2021 United States Capitol attack.[134]

Investigations

Religious organizations

On November 5, 2007, Grassley announced an investigation into the tax-exempt status of six ministries under the leadership of Benny Hinn, Paula White, Eddie L. Long, Joyce Meyer, Creflo Dollar, and Kenneth Copeland by the United States Senate Committee on Finance.[135] In letters to each ministry, Grassley asked for the ministries to divulge specific financial information to the committee to determine whether or not funds collected by each organization were inappropriately utilized by ministry heads.[136] By the December 6, 2007 deadline, only three of the ministries had shown compliance with the Finance Committee’s request. On March 11, 2008, Grassley and Finance chairman Max Baucus sent follow-up letters to Kenneth Copeland, Creflo Dollar and Eddie Long, explaining that the Senate reserved the right to investigate the finances of their organizations under federal tax laws.[137]

Medical research

Grassley also began an investigation about unreported payments to physicians by pharmaceutical companies. Grassley led a 2008 Congressional Investigation which found that well-known university psychiatrists, who had promoted psychoactive drugs, had violated federal and university regulations by secretly receiving large sums of money from the pharmaceutical companies which made the drugs.[138] The New York Times reported that Joseph Biederman of Harvard University had failed to report over a million dollars of income that he had received from pharmaceutical companies.[139] Weeks later, Business Week reported that Grassley alleged that Alan Schatzberg, chair of psychiatry at Stanford University, had underreported his investments in Corcept Therapeutics, a company he founded.[140] Schatzberg had reported only $100,000 investments in Corcept, but Grassley stated that his investments actually totalled over $6 million. Schatzberg later stepped down from his grant which is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[141]

Similarly, Charles Nemeroff resigned as chair of the psychiatry department at Emory University after failing to report a third of the $2.8 million in consulting fees he received from GlaxoSmithKline. At the time he received these fees, Nemeroff had been principal investigator of a $3.9 million NIH grant evaluating five medications for depression manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline.[142]

In 2008, for the first time, Grassley asked the American Psychiatric Association to disclose how much of its annual budget came from drug industry funds. The APA said that industry contributed 28% of its budget ($14 million at that time), mainly through paid advertising in APA journals and funds for continuing medical education.[143]

Political campaigns

Grassley was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1980, defeating the Democratic incumbent, John Culver.[144] He was reelected in 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2016,[145][146] and is the longest-serving U.S. senator in Iowa history.[147]

2010

Grassley sought a sixth term in the 2010 election. He was challenged by Democrat Roxanne Conlin, a former United States attorney, and Libertarian John Heiderscheit, an attorney.

Grassley was unopposed in the Republican primary, although some conservatives said he had drifted “too far to the left”.[148]

Grassley was reelected with 64.5% of the vote, Roxanne Conlin getting 33.2% of the vote. He carried every county in the state except Johnson County,[149] which hosts the University of Iowa. He is only the second Iowan to serve six terms in the Senate; the other being Iowa’s longest-serving senator, William B. Allison.

2016

Grassley speaking at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington, D.C.

Grassley sought a seventh term in the 2016 election. Distinct from 2010, he was expected to face a strong challenge from former Democratic lieutenant governor Patty Judge,[150] but he won his seventh term with over 60% of the vote as the Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump won the state with over 51% of the vote.[151]

2022

In May 2021, Grassley stated that he would not decide whether to run for reelection in 2022 until between eight and 12 months before the election,[152] Given the swing nature of the state and Grassley’s strong results in past elections, many believed that an open seat in Iowa would benefit for the Democrats as they could convince many Grassley supporters to vote for their nominee. In July 2021, former U.S. Representative Abby Finkenauer announced that she would run for the seat regardless of Grassley’s plans and criticized him and Republican Senate leader Mitch McConnell for allegedly being “obsessed with power” and for not taking a strong stance against those who breached the Capitol in the 2021 United States Capitol attack.[153][154]

In September 2021, Grassley announced his intention to run for an eighth consecutive term.[155] His announcement was viewed as a win for Republicans seeking to hold Grassley’s seat and to retake the Senate majority in 2022.[156]

Fundraising

According to the nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics in 2010, the industries that have been the largest contributors to Grassley during his political career are health professionals ($1 million in contributions), insurance industry ($997,674), lawyers/law firms ($625,543) and pharmaceuticals/health products ($538,680). His largest corporate donors have been Blue Cross Blue Shield (insurance), Amgen (biotech company) and Wells Fargo (bank).[157]

Electoral history

2016 United States Senate election in Iowa[158]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley (inc.) 926,007 60.09% -4.26%
DemocraticPatty Judge549,46035.66%+2.36%
LibertarianCharles Aldrich41,7942.71%+0.44%
IndependentJim Hennager17,6491.15%N/A
IndependentMichael Luick-Thrams4,4410.29%N/A
Write-ins1,6860.11%+0.03%
Majority376,54724.43%-6.62%
Turnout1,541,037
Republican holdSwing
2010 United States Senate election in Iowa[159]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley (inc.) 718,215 64.35% -5.83%
DemocraticRoxanne Conlin371,68633.30%+5.43%
LibertarianJohn Heiderscheit25,2902.27%+1.24%
Write-ins8720.08%+0.05%
Majority346,52931.05%-11.26%
Turnout1,116,063
Republican holdSwing
2004 United States Senate election in Iowa[160]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley (inc.) 1,038,175 70.18% +1.77%
DemocraticArt Small412,36527.88%-2.62%
LibertarianChristy Ann Welty15,2181.03%N/A
GreenDaryl A. Northrop11,1210.75%N/A
Socialist WorkersEdwin Fruit1,8740.13%-0.14%
Write-ins4750.03%0%
Majority625,81042.31%+4.39%
Turnout1,479,228
Republican holdSwing
1998 United States Senate election in Iowa[161]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley (inc.) 648,480 68.41% -1.20%
DemocraticDavid Osterberg289,04930.49%+3.29%
Natural LawSusan Marcus7,5610.80%-0.47%
Socialist WorkersMargaret Trowe2,5420.27%+0.16%
Write-ins2750.03%+0.01%
Majority359,43137.92%-4.50%
Turnout947,907
Republican holdSwing
1992 United States Senate election in Iowa[162]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley (inc.) 899,761 69.61% +3.58%
DemocraticJean Hall Lloyd-Jones351,56127.20%-6.37%
Natural LawStuart Zimmerman16,4031.27%N/A
IndependentSue Atkinson6,2770.49%N/A
IndependentMel Boring5,5080.43%N/A
IndependentRosanne Freeburg4,9990.39%N/A
GrassrootsCarl Eric Olsen3,4040.26%N/A
IndependentRichard O’Dell Hughes2,9180.23%N/A
Socialist WorkersCleve Andrew Pulley1,3700.11%N/A
Write-ins2930.02%+0.01%
Majority548,20042.41%+9.95%
Turnout1,292,494
Republican holdSwing
1986 United States Senate election in Iowa[163]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley (inc.) 588,880 66.04% +12.55%
DemocraticJohn P. Roehrick299,40633.57%-11.97%
IndependentJohn Masters3,3700.38%N/A
Write-ins1060.01%+0.01%
Majority289,47432.46%+24.51%
Turnout891,762
Republican holdSwing
1980 United States Senate election in Iowa[164]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Republican Chuck Grassley 683,014 53.49% +4.21%
DemocraticJohn Culver (inc.)581,54545.54%-4.48%
IndependentGarry De Young5,8580.46%N/A
LibertarianRobert V. Hengerer4,2330.33%N/A
IndependentJohn Ingram Henderson2,3360.18%N/A
Write-ins480.00%+0%
Majority101,4697.95%+7.20%
Turnout1,772,983
Republican gain from DemocraticSwing
United States Senate Republican Primary election in Iowa, 1980
PartyCandidateVotes%+%
RepublicanChuck Grassley170,12065.54%
RepublicanTom Stoner89,40934.45%

1978 Iowa 3rd District United States Congressional Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 74.8%
John Knudson (D) 25.2%

1976 Iowa 3rd District United States Congressional Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 56%
Stephen Rapp 44%

1974 Iowa 3rd District United States Congressional Election

Chuck Grassley (R) 50.8%
Stephen Rapp (D) 49.2%

1974 Iowa 3rd District United States Congressional Republican Primary Election

Chuck Grassley (R) 42%
Robert Case (R) 28.2%
Charlene Conklin (R) 18.8%
Bart Schwieger (R) 6.6%
John Williams (R) 4.4%

1972 Iowa House of Representatives 37th District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 86.3%
Tim Youngblood (D) 13.7%

1970 Iowa House of Representatives 10th District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 62.7%
Rollin Howell (D) 36.2%
Colene Eliason (AI) 1.1%

1966 Iowa House of Representatives Butler District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 69.2%
Floyd Ramker (D) 30.8%

1964 Iowa House of Representatives Butler District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 60.9%
Beverly Moffitt (D) 39.1%

1962 Iowa House of Representatives Butler District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 64.3%
Vernon Garner (D) 35.7%

1960 Iowa House of Representatives Butler District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) (inc.) 69.1%
Vernon Garner (D) 30.9%

1958 Iowa House of Representatives Butler District Election

Chuck Grassley (R) 64.1%
Travis Moffitt (D) 35.9%

Personal life

Chuck Grassley and Barbara Ann Speicher married on August 22, 1954. They have five children: Lee, Wendy, Robin, Michele, and Jay.[165] Grassley is a member of the Family, the organization that organizes the National Prayer Breakfast.[166] His grandson Pat Grassley is a member of the Iowa House of Representatives.[167] Grassley is also known for his widely reported and long-running “feud” with the History Channel; he has consistently accused the network of featuring little actual history programming.[168]
On November 17, 2020, Grassley announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19.[169]

Awards

In 2003, Grassley’s alma mater, the University of Northern Iowa, selected him for honoris causa membership in Omicron Delta Kappa, the National Leadership Honor Society. In 2009, the National Center for Health Research[170] gave Grassley the Health Policy Hero award for his 2004 oversight of legislative reforms and accountability of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[171] In 2010, The Hill named Grassley and Max Baucus the hardest-working members of Congress.[172]

Twitter account

Grassley operates his own account, @ChuckGrassley, on Twitter. The account has gained notoriety for cryptic posts that have gone viral,[173] including tweets about “u kno what” (ice cream) at a Dairy Queen in Windsor Heights, Iowa,[174] hitting a deer while driving,[175] and finding a dead “pidgin” in his front yard.[176]

Notes

  1. ^ Immediately following Bork’s rejection Democrats on the Senate Judiciary Committee emphatically declared both Bowman and Wallace unacceptable,[21] while Vermont’s Patrick Leahy stated that if any candidate unacceptable to the Democratic Senate majority be nominated, Senate Democrats would refuse to hold hearings and keep the seat open until after the 1988 presidential election.[22]

References

  1. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (November 16, 2018). “Sen. Chuck Grassley opts for Finance Committee chairman, setting up Sen. Lindsey Graham to lead Judiciary Committee”. CNBC. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  2. ^ Bolton, Alexander (November 16, 2016). “Trump set to have close ally Graham in powerful chairmanship”. The Hill. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  3. ^ Felton, Ellyn. “Grassley set to become Senate pro tempore”. KCRG-TV9. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  4. ^ Bunge, Mike. “Chuck Grassley to be third in line for the Presidency”. KIMT News. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  5. ^ Ancestors of Charles Ernest Grassley Archived May 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. rootsweb.com.
  6. ^ “Greeks in the 113th Congress”. North-American Interfraternity Conference. Archived from the original on March 27, 2014. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  7. ^ a b “Charles Grassley”. www.legis.iowa.gov. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  8. ^ “Biographical Directory of the United States Congress – Grassley, Charles Ernest – Biographical Information”. Office of Art and Archives and Office of the Historian, The United States Congress. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  9. ^ Tolchin, Martin (November 14, 1981). “32 G.O.P. SENATORS PRAISE STOCKMAN; OTHERS SKEPTICAL”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  10. ^ Miller, Judith (August 20, 1982). “QUARREL IN SENATE OVER RADIO MARTI”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  11. ^ “SENATE’S ROLL-CALL VOTE ON KING HOLIDAY”. The New York Times. October 20, 1983. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
  12. ^ Kamisar, Ben (January 18, 2015). “Lawmakers reflect on MLK Day ‘no’ votes”. The Hill. Archived from the original on December 22, 2019. Retrieved December 22, 2019. Grassley aide: “Senator Grassley’s vote against an MLK Day holiday was purely an economic decision both in the cost to the broader economy in lost productivity, and the cost to the taxpayers with the federal government closed”
  13. ^ “S.1368 – A bill to authorize the President to award a gold medal on behalf of the Congress to Reverend Doctor Martin Luther King, Jr. (posthumously) and his widow Coretta Scott King in recognition of their contributions to the Nation on behalf of the civil rights movement”. congress.gov. 2003–2004. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  14. ^ “Some evolved on MLK honor”. Newsday. January 20, 2019. Archived from the original on December 22, 2019. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  15. ^ Biddle, Wayne (November 1, 1984). “Contempt Citation in Dynamics Case”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  16. ^ “Government suspends farm price support payments”. UPI. May 1, 1987. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  17. ^ “Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa, a leading conservative supporter of…” UPI. October 8, 1987. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  18. ^ “Supporters of Robert Bork’s Supreme Court nomination renewed their…” UPI. October 22, 1987. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  19. ^ Lauter, David (November 5, 1987). “Senate Panel Refuses to Rush Hearings on Ginsburg”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  20. ^ Lauter, David; Healy, Melissa (November 6, 1987). “Ginsburg Admits Smoking Marijuana in ’60s and ’70s”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  21. ^ Epstein, Aaron; ‘3 High Court Hopefuls Deemed OK’; The Miami Herald, October 28, 1987, p. 16
  22. ^ Yalof, David Alistair; Pursuit of Justices: Presidential Politics and the Selection of Supreme Court Nominees, p. 164ISBN 9780226945460
  23. ^ Thomas, Helen (November 10, 1987). “President Reagan nominates Judge Anthony Kennedy to Supreme Court”. UPI. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  24. ^ Rasky, Susan F. (January 5, 1989). “Senate Leaders, Reacting to Criticism, Agree to Vote on Rejecting a Raise”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  25. ^ Oreskes, Michael (February 2, 1989). “Tempers and Patience Short In Pay-Conscious Congress”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  26. ^ Toner, Robin (October 6, 1989). “Flag-burning Ban is Voted by Senate”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  27. ^ “S.J.Res. 2 (102nd): Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution”. govtrack.us. Archived from the original on September 5, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  28. ^ “Senate creates POW-MIA panel”. UPI. August 2, 1991. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  29. ^ Clinton, Bill (July 22, 1998). “Remarks on Signing the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998”. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. And in particular, let me thank Senator Kerrey and Congressman Portman, Senator Roth, Senator Moynihan, Senator Grassley, Congressman Archer, Congressman Rangel, Congressman Cardin for their leading work that makes it possible for me to sign into law today the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act.
  30. ^ “Roll Call of Votes on Articles of Impeachment”. The New York Times. Associated Press. February 12, 1999. Archived from the original on January 6, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  31. ^ Stevenson, Richard W.; Rosenbaum, David E. (May 9, 2001). “Panel Reaches Deal on Budget Framework”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  32. ^ Storm, Stephanie (August 22, 2002). “Senator Questions Finances of United Way”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  33. ^ “Dead farmers got subsidies”. The Seattle Times. July 24, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
  34. ^ “CCAGW Honors Sen. Chuck Grassley for Being a “Taxpayer Super Hero. MarketWatch. July 30, 2015. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  35. ^ The Lugar Center – McCourt School Bipartisan Index (PDF), The Lugar Center, March 7, 2016, archived (PDF) from the original on June 21, 2017, retrieved April 30, 2017
  36. ^ “The Lugar Center – McCourt School Bipartisan Index” (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The Lugar Center. April 24, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  37. ^ Lichtblau, Eric (February 19, 2004). “Senator Says Report Chronicling Misconduct by F.B.I. Agents Is a ‘List of Horrors. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  38. ^ Schienberg, Jonathan (June 28, 2006). “Senator seeks tax on pimps, prostitutes”. CNN. Archived from the original on August 21, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2006.
  39. ^ “Grassley Press Release on the “Pimp Tax. Archived from the original on June 28, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2006.
  40. ^ Bradsher, Keith (May 30, 2006). “Americans Living Abroad Get a Nasty Tax Surprise”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  41. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (May 12, 2006). “Americans abroad face higher United States tax bills”. International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006.
  42. ^ Senator Charles Grassley’s Letter of October 3rd 2007 in the Wall Street Journal Provokes Vivid Response. Archived February 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ “Pressure grows on AIG to return bonuses”. NBC News. Associated Press. March 18, 2009. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  44. ^ Montanaro, Domenico (March 17, 2009). “Grassley dismisses suicide talk as rhetoric”. MSNBC. Archived from the original on March 20, 2009.
  45. ^ Phillips, Kate (March 17, 2009). “Grassley: A.I.G. Must Take Its Medicine (Not Hemlock)”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009.
  46. ^ Hancock, Jason (May 8, 2009). “Grassley cosponsors flag-burning amendment”. Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  47. ^ Hancock, Jason (October 8, 2009). “Grassleys opposition to individual insurance mandate comes under fire”. Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on October 11, 2009.
  48. ^ Stein, Sam (September 12, 2009). “Grassley Endorses “Death Panel” Rumor: “You Have Every Right To Fear. Huffington Post. Archived from the original on December 16, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  49. ^ Hancock, Jason (August 12, 2009). “Grassley: Government shouldn’t ‘decide when to pull the plug on grandma. Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  50. ^ Hancock, Jason (August 12, 2009). “Grassley repeats euthanasia claim”. Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  51. ^ “Sen. Deather”. The Rachel Maddow Show. NBC News. August 13, 2009. Archived from the original on December 1, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  52. ^ Hancock, Jason (August 14, 2009). “Grassley was for ‘death panels’ before he was against them”. The Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.,
  53. ^ Hulse, Carl (January 31, 2021). “Ghosts of 2009 Drive Democrats’ Push for Robust Crisis Response”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  54. ^ Nicholas, Peter (January 7, 2010). “GOP senators voice reservations about TSA nominee Erroll Southers”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  55. ^ Memmott, Mark (December 22, 2010). “Senate Ratifies START”. NPR. Archived from the original on March 31, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  56. ^ Baker, Peter (December 22, 2010). “Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty With Russia, 71-26”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  57. ^ a b Tibbetts, Ed (April 17, 2013). “Grassley proposes alternative gun bill”. Quad-City Times. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013.
  58. ^ DelReal, Jose (March 10, 2015). “Here’s a list of the GOP senators who signed the Iran letter”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 29, 2019. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  59. ^ Kelley, Matt (June 16, 2015). “Senator Grassley introduces bill to protect taxpayers from IRS”. RadioIowa. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015.
  60. ^ “Sen. Chuck Grassley (R)”. National Journal Almanac. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
  61. ^ Glueck, Katie (February 1, 2016). “Cruz’s bid for a ‘full Grassley’ succeeds at the wire”. Politico. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  62. ^ Kane, Paul (October 5, 2018). “Grassley suggests absence of women on Judiciary due to committee’s heavy workload”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  63. ^ Leys, Tony (October 8, 2018). “Chuck Grassley: Judiciary should have more women, because they ‘are smarter than most male senators. The Des Moines Register. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  64. ^ Landler, Mark; Haberman, Maggie (July 9, 2018). “Brett Kavanaugh Is Trump’s Pick for Supreme Court”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  65. ^ Pfannenstiel, Brianne (July 9, 2018). “Chuck Grassley: Trump’s Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh a ‘superb’ choice”. Des Moines Register. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  66. ^ Gruber-Miller, Stephen (July 11, 2018). “Grassley: ‘How are you going to know’ how Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh will rule?”. The Des Moines Register. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  67. ^ “Where Senate Republicans Stand on Filling the Supreme Court Vacancy”. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  68. ^ Gruber-Miller, Stephen; Pfannenstiel, Brianne (January 6, 2021). Sad day in our democracy,’ lawmakers react, U.S. Sen. Chuck Grassley escorted out of Senate after Trump supporters breach Capitol”. The Hawk Eye Newspaper. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  69. ^ Oates, Trevor (January 8, 2021). “Rep. Axne will support impeaching President Trump again, Reps. Hinson, Feenstra will not”. KWWL. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  70. ^ McCullough, Caleb (January 8, 2021). “Iowa’s congressional delegation split along party lines over impeachment”. The Daily Iowan. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  71. ^ Editorial, Staff (January 8, 2021). “Gazette editorial: Iowa Republicans must face a reckoning”. The Gazette. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  72. ^ Naranjo, Jesse. “Poll: Majority of Iowans do not want Grassley to seek reelection”. POLITICO. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  73. ^ Carney, Jordain (November 3, 2015). “Senators praise Grassley’s voting record”. The Hill. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  74. ^ O’Keefe, Ed. “Susan Collins casts her 5,000th consecutive vote”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  75. ^ a b Hawkings, David (January 20, 2016). “Unnoticed, Grassley Sets Record for Most Time Without a Missed Senate Vote”. Roll Call. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  76. ^ Lesniewski, Niels (November 17, 2020). “Grassley Senate vote streak is over, misses his first roll call in 27 years”. Roll Call. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  77. ^ Gruber-Miller, Stephen (November 17, 2020). “Sen. Chuck Grassley in quarantine following coronavirus exposure”. Des Moines Register. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  78. ^ “North Iowans ask Grassley questions on health care reform”. GlobeGazette.com. April 1, 2010. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  79. ^ “Anti-Abortion Bill Voted, 4-0”. The New York Times. December 17, 1981. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  80. ^ “The Voter’s Self Defense System”. Vote Smart. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  81. ^ “Senators Urge Department-Wide USDA Initiative to Prioritize Farm Bill Water Quality Improvements”. hoosieragtoday.com. April 17, 2019. Archived from the original on November 13, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  82. ^ “Grassley wants to meet with EPA over agriculture rules”. The Des Moines Register. May 23, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  83. ^ Eller, Donnelle (October 22, 2019). “After playing ‘footsie with big oil companies,’ EPA has a ‘public relations problem’ with farmers, Grassley says”. The Des Moines Register.
  84. ^ “Grassley says EPA ‘screwed’ farmers with biofuels exemptions”. keyc.com. August 16, 2019. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  85. ^ Crampton, Liz (December 20, 2019). “EPA backing off from new RFS rule”. Politico. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  86. ^ “Wind Energy Production Tax Credit”. senate.gov. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  87. ^ a b c “Grassley Advances Alternative Energy Production Tax Priorities”. senate.gov. June 19, 2007. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  88. ^ “Roll Call Vote 109th Congress – 1st Session”. senate.gov. June 28, 2005. Archived from the original on December 15, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  89. ^ “Roll Call Vote 110th Congress – 1st Session”. senate.gov. June 21, 2007. Archived from the original on November 16, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  90. ^ “Grassley named a Friend of Iowa Wind Energy”. KMA Land. Archived from the original on July 31, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  91. ^ Eller, Donnelle (December 8, 2017). “Grassley netted nearly $370,000 in farm subsidies, environmental group says”. The Des Moines Register. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  92. ^ “Grassley’s ethanol challenge”. The Washington Post. November 24, 2010. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016.
  93. ^ Tysver, Robynn (June 3, 2017). “Iowa and Nebraska lawmakers stand by Trump on Paris climate accord”. Omaha World-Herald. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  94. ^ Boden, Sarah (June 2, 2017). “Grassley Fields Questions On Healthcare, Paris Agreement At Town Hall”. Iowa Public Radio.
  95. ^ Samuels, Brett (December 3, 2017). “Grassley: Ending estate tax ‘recognizes people that are investing,’ not ‘spending every darn penny. TheHill. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
  96. ^ a b c Noble, Jason. “Despite lawmakers’ warnings, few Iowa farmers face estate tax”. Des Moines Register. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
  97. ^ “The Voter’s Self Defense System”. Vote Smart. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  98. ^ Schwartz, Rafi (October 10, 2017). “Every Member of Congress Who Took Money From the NRA and Tweeted ‘Thoughts and Prayers’ to Las Vegas”. Splinter News. Archived from the original on December 22, 2019. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  99. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (September 18, 2013). “Grassley: Gun control ineffective until mental issues are addressed”. TheHill. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  100. ^ Lejeune, Tristan (June 20, 2016). “Senate rejects gun control background check measures”. TheHill. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  101. ^ “Ernst, Grassley vote with GOP on gun control”. Des Moines Register. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  102. ^ Benen, Steve. “Senate Republicans vote to expand gun access for mentally impaired”. MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 3, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  103. ^ Noble, Jason. “Grassley: Las Vegas shooting unlikely to move Congress on gun control”. Des Moines Register. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  104. ^ Sarah Mucha. “Grassley: Gov’t needs to do better on mental health and guns”. CNN. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  105. ^ Golshan, Tara; Scott, Dylan; Stein, Jeff (June 16, 2017). “We asked 8 Senate Republicans to explain what their health bill is trying to do”. Vox. Archived from the original on June 16, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
  106. ^ “Grassley: I Supported The Individual Mandate Before I Realized It Was Unconstitutional”. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  107. ^ Pecquet, Julian (January 9, 2012). “Lugar haunted by past support for individual mandate”. TheHill. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  108. ^ “Grassley backtracks on individual mandate – Live Pulse – POLITICO.com”. www.politico.com. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  109. ^ “Is Grassley Abandoning Bipartisan Health Bill?”. NPR.org. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  110. ^ Played’ by GOP in the Obama era, wary Democrats and Biden go big on their own”. Los Angeles Times. January 29, 2021. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  111. ^ Haberkorn, Jennifer. “This time, Grassley hears pro-Obamacare voices”. POLITICO. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  112. ^ Obama, Barack. “Barack Obama Looks Back on His Toughest Fight”. The New Yorker. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  113. ^ Byrnes, Jason (July 8, 2017). “Grassley: GOP will lose Senate majority without healthcare reform”. The Hill. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  114. ^ a b Hellmann, Jessie (August 24, 2018). “GOP senators introduce bill to preserve ObamaCare’s pre-existing conditions protections”. The Hill. Archived from the original on August 24, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  115. ^ Leys, Tony. “Grassley opposes medical marijuana rescheduling”. Des Moines Register. Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  116. ^ Staff, National Desk (November 5, 2020). “Live updates: Largest Nevada county still tallying mail votes”. KETV. Archived from the original on November 4, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  117. ^ “Cosponsors – S.720 – 115th Congress (2017-2018): Israel Anti-Boycott Act”. www.congress.gov. March 23, 2017. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  118. ^ Levitz, Eric (July 19, 2017). “43 Senators Want to Make It a Federal Crime to Boycott Israeli Settlements”. Intelligencer. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  119. ^ Vlahos, Kelley (March 5, 2019). “Israel Boycott Exposes Serious Rifts in the Democratic Party”. The American Conservative. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  120. ^ Singletary, Michelle (December 23, 2019). “A new law is bringing big changes for retirement savers, especially parents”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  121. ^ Tibbetts, Ed. “Grassley: U.S. hands aren’t clean”. The Quad-City Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  122. ^ Fox & friends (foxandfriends). .@ChuckGrassley’s message to those calling Comey’s firing ‘Nixonian’: ‘Suck it up and move on.'” Archived November 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine May 10, 2017, 5:12 a.m. Tweet.
  123. ^ Barrett, Ted. “Top Republicans (literally) dodge questions on Trump aide indictments”. CNN. CNN. Archived from the original on October 31, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  124. ^ a b c Fandos, Nicholas; Rosenberg, Matthew (2018). “Republican Senators Recommend Charges Against Author of Trump Dossier”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  125. ^ a b c Cheney, Kylework=POLITICO (January 9, 2018). Human source’ in Trump orbit contacted FBI, Fusion GPS co-founder told senators”. Archived from the original on January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  126. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (January 9, 2018). “Senate Democrats just released the full testimony on the Trump-Russia dossier. Here’s what’s in it”. CNBC. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  127. ^ Needham, Vicki (January 30, 2018). “Senate Republicans call on Trump to preserve NAFTA”. The Hill. Archived from the original on December 23, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  128. ^ “1983: Neoconservative Arrives at Pentagon, Allegedly Acts as Israeli Agent within Defense Department”. Counterpunch. February 24, 2004. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016.
  129. ^ Hicks, Josh. “Sen. Charles Grassley plans new whistleblower-protection caucus”. Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  130. ^ christinia.crippes@wcfcourier.com, CHRISTINIA CRIPPES. “Grassley grilled on Snowden views at whistleblower talk”. Waterloo Cedar Falls Courier. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  131. ^ Gregorian, Dareh. “Chuck Grassley defends Ukraine whistleblower, breaking with GOP and Trump”. NBC News. Archived from the original on October 13, 2019. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  132. ^ Everett, Burgess (October 1, 2019). “Grassley breaks with Trump over protecting whistleblower”. Politico. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  133. ^ Coltrain, Nick. “Sen. Chuck Grassley rejects retaliation claim in Trump removing impeachment witnesses”. Des Moines Register. Retrieved October 31, 2020.
  134. ^ “Which senators supported a Jan. 6 Capitol riot commission”. Washington Post. May 28, 2021.
  135. ^ Lohr, Kathy (December 4, 2007). “Senator Probes Megachurches’ Finances”. NPR. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2007.
  136. ^ “Televangelists Living Like Kings?”. CBS News. November 6, 2007. Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
  137. ^ “Grassley, Baucus Urge Four Ministries to Cooperate”. Planned Giving Design Center. March 12, 2008. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  138. ^ Kirk, Stuart A. (2013). Mad Science: Psychiatric Coercion, Diagnosis, and Drugs. Transaction Publishers. p. 21.
  139. ^ Harris, Gardiner; Carey, Benedict (June 8, 2008). “Researchers Fail to Reveal Full Drug Pay”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008.
  140. ^ Weintraub, Arlene (June 26, 2008). “Drug Makers and College Labs: Too Cozy?”. Business Week. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011.
  141. ^ “Stanford Researcher, Accused of Conflicts, Steps Down as NIH Principal Investigator”. The Chronicle of Higher Education. August 1, 2008. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009.
  142. ^ Gellene, Denise; Maugh II, Thomas H. (October 4, 2008). “Doctor Accused in Congress’ Probe”. The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009.
  143. ^ Kirk, Stuart A. (2013). Mad Science: Psychiatric Coercion, Diagnosis, and Drugs. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1412855921.
  144. ^ Rodriguez, Barbara. “John Culver, former U.S. senator and father of Chet Culver, dies at 86”. Des Moines Register.
  145. ^ “Iowa Sen. Grassley to seek seventh term”. www.thegazette.com.
  146. ^ “Iowa U.S. Senate Results: Charles E. Grassley Wins”. August 1, 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
  147. ^ Staff, KTIV (September 24, 2021). “Iowa Senator Charles Grassley announces re-election campaign”.
  148. ^ Hancock, Jason (April 10, 2009). “Salier: Grassley could be primaried”. The Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  149. ^ “County Results – Election Center 2010 – Elections & Politics from CNN.com”. CNN. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012.
  150. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer; Herszenhorn, David M. “Charles Grassley Faces Formidable Challenger in Iowa Senate Race”. NY Times. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
  151. ^ “Iowa Presidential Race Results: Donald J. Trump Wins”. The New York Times. August 1, 2017. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  152. ^ “Chuck Grassley is the 80-something everyone’s waiting on”. POLITICO.
  153. ^ Thrush, Glenn (July 22, 2021). “A young Democrat challenges Grassley for Iowa Senate seat, citing his failure to confront the Jan. 6 rioters” – via NYTimes.com.
  154. ^ @Abby4Iowa (July 22, 2021). “I’m Abby Finkenauer, and I’m running…” (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  155. ^ CNN, Karl de Vries. “Longtime Iowa Sen. Chuck Grassley is running for reelection”. CNN. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  156. ^ Everett, Burgess. “Grassley will seek reelection, boosting GOP’s majority hopes”. POLITICO.
  157. ^ “Chuck Grassley: Campaign Finance/Money – Industries”. Center for Responsive Politics. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
  158. ^ “2016 Senatorial General Election Results” (PDF). Uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  159. ^ “STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 2, 2010” (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  160. ^ “MICROCOMP output file” (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  161. ^ “STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 3, 1998” (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  162. ^ “STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 3, 1992” (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  163. ^ “STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 4, 1986” (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  164. ^ “STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 4, 1980” (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  165. ^ “Barbara Grassley”. Iowa State University Plaza of Heroines. February 26, 2015. Archived from the original on August 26, 2019. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  166. ^ Sharlet, Jeff (July 21, 2009). “Sex and power inside “the C Street House. Salon. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  167. ^ “Representative Pat Grassley”. Iowa Legislature. Archived from the original on February 12, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  168. ^ Carter, Brandon (December 9, 2017). “Grassley renews feud with History Channel over lack of history programming”. The Hill. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  169. ^ Segers, Grace (November 17, 2020). “Chuck Grassley, second oldest senator, tests positive for COVID-19”. CBS News. Washington, D.C. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  170. ^ “Previous Foremothers and Health Policy Heroes”. National Research Center for Women & Families. 2010. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  171. ^ “Grassley recognized for work to increase accountability in health care system”. grassley.senate.gov (Press release). May 8, 2009. Archived from the original on October 7, 2009.
  172. ^ Victoria, Lauren (June 9, 2010). “The 25 hardest working lawmakers”. The Hill. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  173. ^ “The strangely amazing Twitter poetry of Sen. Charles Grassley”. The Week. February 8, 2013. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  174. ^ “Senator Grassley Explains His Odd Dairy Queen Tweet”. BuzzFeed News. November 7, 2014. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  175. ^ Assume deer dead:’ Iowa’s Grassley celebrates anniversary of legendary tweet”. Waterloo-Cedar Falls Courier. October 25, 2017. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  176. ^ “Grassley’s ‘PIDGIN’ tale on Twitter leads to Sheboygan”. Radio Iowa. September 22, 2020. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.

Further reading

External links

Iowa House of Representatives
Preceded by
Wayne Ballhagen
Member of the Iowa House of Representatives
from the 73rd district

1959–1971
Succeeded by
John Camp
Preceded by
William Harbor
Member of the Iowa House of Representatives
from the 10th district

1971–1973
Succeeded by
Richard Welden
Preceded by
Bill Hansen
Member of the Iowa House of Representatives
from the 37th district

1973–1975
Succeeded by
Raymond Lageschulte
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
H. R. Gross
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa’s 3rd congressional district

1975–1981
Succeeded by
T. Cooper Evans
Party political offices
Preceded by
David M. Stanley
Republican nominee for U.S. senator from Iowa
(Class 3)

1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, 2010, 2016
Most recent
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
John Culver
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Iowa
1981–present
Served alongside: Roger Jepsen, Tom Harkin, Joni Ernst
Incumbent
Preceded by
William Cohen
Chair of the Senate Aging Committee
1997–2001
Succeeded by
Larry Craig
Preceded by
Max Baucus
Chair of the Senate Finance Committee
2001
Succeeded by
Max Baucus
Ranking Member of the Senate Finance Committee
2001–2003
Chair of the Senate Finance Committee
2003–2007
Preceded by
Joe Biden
Chair of the Senate Narcotics Caucus
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Joe Biden
Preceded by
Bill Thomas
Chair of the Joint Taxation Committee
2004–2005
Succeeded by
Bill Thomas
Chair of the Joint Taxation Committee
2006–2007
Succeeded by
Charlie Rangel
Preceded by
Joe Biden
Ranking Member of the Senate Narcotics Caucus
2007–2015
Succeeded by
Dianne Feinstein
Preceded by
Max Baucus
Ranking Member of the Senate Finance Committee
2007–2013
Succeeded by
Orrin Hatch
Preceded by
Jeff Sessions
Ranking Member of the Senate Judiciary Committee
2013–2015
Succeeded by
Pat Leahy
Preceded by
Pat Leahy
Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee
2015–2019
Succeeded by
Lindsey Graham
Preceded by
Dianne Feinstein
Chair of the Senate Narcotics Caucus
2015–2019
Succeeded by
John Cornyn
Preceded by
Orrin Hatch
Chair of the Senate Finance Committee
2019–2021
Succeeded by
Ron Wyden
Preceded by
Richard Neal
Chair of the Joint Taxation Committee
2020–2021
Succeeded by
Richard Neal
Political offices
Preceded by
Orrin Hatch
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
2019–2021
Succeeded by
Patrick Leahy
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Orrin Hatch
Most Senior Republican in the United States Senate
2019–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Patrick Leahy
President pro tempore emeritus of the U.S. Senate
2021–present
Incumbent
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Patrick Leahy
United States senators by seniority
2nd
Succeeded by
Mitch McConnell